10 Oct

About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 9

Extremely important quote by Dr. Skinner…

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“Evolutionary theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by the human genetic endowment from antecedent design to subsequent selection by contingencies of survival. Operant theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by human action from antecedent intention or plan to subsequent selection by contingencies of reinforcement.” (p. 246)

25 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 1

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“Introspective knowledge of one’s own body—self-knowledge—is defective for two reasons: the verbal community cannot bring self-descriptive behavior under the precise control of private stimuli, and there has been no opportunity for the evolution of a nervous system which would bring some very important parts of the body under that control.” (p. 242)

18 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 5

Great quote from Dr. Skinner…

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“It is direct intervention and manipulation of the body which is most often cited today to illustrate the dangers of the control of behavior, but a much more effective control is already within reach through environmental manipulation. It is only the traditional fascination with an inner life which again leads to the neglect of the latter.” (p. 236)

6 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 15

Very important quote that expresses the effects of a person’s natural and social environments  😊

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“Man is born free,” said Rousseau, “and is everywhere in chains,” but no one is less free than a newborn child, nor will he become free as he grows older. His only hope is that he will come under the control of a natural and social environment in which he will make the most of his genetic endowment and in doing so most successfully pursue happiness.” (p. 221)

6 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 11

Yes, you can effect if someone behaves morally…

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“. . . if we are asked, “Is a person moral because he behaves morally, or does he behave morally because he is moral?” we must answer, “Neither.” He behaves morally and we call him moral because he lives in a particular kind of environment.” (p. 213)

22 Aug

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 3

Do any of your Learners, Family Members, Friends, and/or Colleagues attempt to control the world around them?

If so, you may be “assuming” that this is “inappropriate” behavior. However, read Skinner’s quote below before making this assumption…

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“We often overlook the fact that human behavior is also a form of control. That an organism should act to control the world around it is as characteristic of life as breathing or reproduction.” (p. 208)

14 Aug

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 24

The CLM Curriculum contains the contingencies that develop the Learners’ Competent Learner Repertoires…

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“[Teaching] is a field in which the goal seems to be obviously a matter of changing minds, attitudes, feelings, motives, and so on, and the Establishment is therefore particularly resistant to change. Yet, the point of education can be stated in behavioral terms: a teacher arranges contingencies under which the student acquires behavior which will be useful to him under other contingencies later on.” (pp. 202-203)

25 Jul

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 12

Very important statement…

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“The shift from introspective to environmental evidence does not guarantee that self-knowledge will be accurate . . . [When evidence is sketchy,] we are likely to explain the inexplicable by attributing it to genetic endowment—asserting, “I was born that way,” or, “That’s the kind of person I am.” (p. 188)

17 Jul

About Behaviorism, Chapter 10: The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion, Quote 12

Yes, yes, and Yes!

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“We need to know a great deal more about complex contingencies of reinforcement, and it will always be hard to deal with that particular set to which any one person is exposed during his life, but at least we know how to go about finding out what we need to know.” (p. 182)

5 Jul

About Behaviorism, Chapter 10: The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion, Quote 9

VERY SIGNIFICANT QUOTE…

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“The extraordinary appeal of inner causes and the accompanying neglect of environmental histories and current setting must be due to more than a linguistic practice. I suggest that it has the appeal of the arcane, the occult, the hermetic, the magical—those mysteries which have held so important a position in the history of human thought . . . It is the appeal still enjoyed by astrology, numerology, parapsychology, and psychical research.” (p.178)

5 Jun

About Behaviorism, Chapter 8: Causes and Reasons, Quote 1

Of course, most of us would not want our learners to be exposed to the contingencies for not following the law. However, sometimes it may be necessary to let a learner who is NOT obeying a minor law/rules be exposed to the contingencies for his own good and everyone else. For example, getting a traffic ticket for crossing the street where there is not a legitimate crosswalk when you see a cop nearby. Paying such a fine may be an important exposure to a contingency as long as the learner’s safety was not compromised.

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“A person who is following directions, taking advice, heeding warnings, or obeying rules or laws does not behave precisely as one who has been directly exposed to the contingencies, because description of the contingencies is never complete or exact . . .” (p. 139)

22 May

About Behaviorism, Chapter 7: Thinking, Quote 7

One of Dr. Skinner’s best….

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“Abstracting and forming concepts are likely to be called cognitive, but they also involve contingencies of reinforcement. We do not need to suppose that an abstract entity or concept is held in the mind; a subtle and complex history of reinforcement has generated a special kind of stimulus control.” (p. 117)

17 Apr

About Behaviorism, Chapter 4: Operant Behavior, Quote 12

Most people do NOT know that depression is likely to be caused by a lack of reinforcement…

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“. . . a person is said to be unable to go to work because he is discouraged or depressed, although his not going, together with what he feels, is due to a lack of reinforcement—either in his work or in some other part of his life.” (p. 64)

 

3 Apr

About Behaviorism, Chapter 4: Operant Behavior, Quote 6

Very important points made by Dr. Skinner…

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“​The conspicuousness of the causes is at issue when reflex behavior is called involuntary—one is not free to sneeze or not to sneeze; the initiating cause is the pepper. Operant behavior is called voluntary, but it is not really uncaused; the cause is simply harder to spot.” (p. 60)

28 Mar

About Behaviorism, Chapter 4: Operant Behavior, Quote 2

Operant behavior is emitted and Respondent behavior is elicited; very important ABA technical language. Just as important is that prompts are faded and reinforcement schedules are leaned. ABA Implements have a tendency to say that reinforcement schedules are faded…UHG!

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“To distinguish an operant from an elicited reflex, we say that the operant response is “emitted.” (It might be better to say simply that it appears, since emission may imply that behavior exists inside the organism and then comes out. But the word need not mean ejection; light is not in the hot filament before it is emitted.)” (p. 58)

28 Mar

About Behaviorism, Chapter 4: Operant Behavior, Quote 1

This is a great quote…

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“The process of operant conditioning . . . is simple enough. When a bit of behavior has the kind of consequence called reinforcing, it is more likely to occur again . . . The process supplements natural selection. Important consequences of behavior which could not play a role in evolution because they were not sufficiently stable features of the environment are made effective through operant conditioning during the lifetime of the individual, whose power in dealing with his world is thus vastly increased.” (pp. 51-52)

19 Dec

Science and Human Behavior, Chapter 20: Personal Control, Quote 5

In terms of the CLM Model, we refer to the Speaker repertoire as the Talker repertoire in terms of this post. The Talker (intraverbal) or Problem Solver (mand) is communicating with the Listener. For example, the Talker is communicating with his/herself, which is a private event [personal]. The Problem Solver (mand) maybe asking him/herself to take action given the circumstances and the Listener is likely to behave according to his history in his/her given verbal community.

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“The whole field of verbal behavior exemplifies the use of stimuli in personal control. The speaker generates auditory patterns which are effective because of the listener’s history in a given verbal community.” (p. 317)