14 May

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 4: The experimental analysis of behavior. Quote 30

Although it is sometimes said that research on lower animals makes it impossible to discover what is distinctly human, it is only by studying the behavior of lower animals that we can tell what is distinctly human. (p. 101)

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Vicci Tucci – Trained my first dog who was 12 years old to sit when I was ONLY 12 years old for my 4-H Project since I did NOT live on a farm with animals like pigs and goats. The vet told me she was too old to learn. That is all it took for me to “go for training her”! The beginning of my interest in learning about Behavior and how one can teach new behaviors. However, I chose to teach Humans!

9 Apr

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 4: The experimental analysis of behavior. Quote 6

“The importance of programming is, indeed, often completely overlooked. For example, the statement that a given type of organism or an organism of a given age “cannot solve a given kind of problem” is meaningless until the speaker has specified the programs which have been tried and considered the possibility that better ones may be designed. (p. 80)”

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Vicci Tucci – CLMers perform as expected for their learners by arranging and rearranging the contingencies based on the learners’ performance…

19 Mar

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 2: Utopia as an Experimental Culture. Quote 7

“An important point is that effective contingencies need to be programmed—that is, they are effective only when a person has passed through a series of intermediate contingencies.” (pp. 39-40)

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Vicci Tucci – An example would be, leaning a schedule of reinforcement which passes through a series of intermediate contingencies…

21 Feb

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 1: The Role of the Environment. Quote 29

“… when a craftsman spends a week in completing a given object, each of the parts produced during the week is likely to be automatically reinforcing because of its place in the completed object.” (p. 18)

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Vicci Tucci – The educational community’s language for Automatic Reinforcement is Intrinsic Reinforcement. Most educators prefer this form of reinforcement instead of Consumable Reinforcement. Therefore, I make sure to teach CLMers about Skinner’s three forms of reinforcement, Automatic, Social, and Educational (e.g., consumables and activities). Skinner considers social as the weakest form and automatic as the most effective form to develop repertoires. As Skinner has noted, an implementer has to condition automatic reinforcement as a potential form of reinforcement.

21 Feb

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 1: The Role of the Environment. Quote 25

“Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement which expedite learning . . . Programmed instruction is a technique taken directly from the operant laboratory, and it is designed to maximize the reinforcement associated with successful control of the environment . . . An equally important advance is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement in the classroom which take over the function of “discipline.” (p. 15)

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Vicci Tucci – This Skinnerian Finding greatly affected the development of the Competent Learner Model (CLM). It provided me with the content I needed to impact Learning Environments in Public School Settings more than 3 decades ago.

12 Feb

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 1: The Role of the Environment. Quote 22

“A culture is not the behavior of the people “living in it”; it is the “it” in which they live—the contingencies of social reinforcement which generate and sustain their behavior.” (p. 13)

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Vicci Tucci – I consider a Learning Environment as an “it” given that the Learner’s and Implementers behaviors are affected by the contingencies…

23 Jan

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 1: The Role of the Environment. Quote 8

“An adequate formulation of the interaction between an organism and its environment must always specify three things: (1) the occasion upon which a response occurs, (2) the response itself, and (3) the reinforcing consequences. The interrelationships among them are the “contingencies of reinforcement.” (p. 7)

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Vicci Tucci – It is the interrelationship that matters, A-B-C.

23 Jan

Contingencies of Reinforcement. Chapter 1: The Role of the Environment. Quote 6

“The class of responses upon which a reinforcer is contingent is called an operant, to suggest the action on the environment followed by reinforcement. We construct an operant by making a reinforcer contingent on a response, but the important fact about the resulting unit is not its topography but its probability of occurrence, observed as rate of emission.” (p. 7)

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Vicci Tucci – Yes, yes, yes…

10 Oct

About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 9

Extremely important quote by Dr. Skinner…

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“Evolutionary theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by the human genetic endowment from antecedent design to subsequent selection by contingencies of survival. Operant theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by human action from antecedent intention or plan to subsequent selection by contingencies of reinforcement.” (p. 246)

25 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 1

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“Introspective knowledge of one’s own body—self-knowledge—is defective for two reasons: the verbal community cannot bring self-descriptive behavior under the precise control of private stimuli, and there has been no opportunity for the evolution of a nervous system which would bring some very important parts of the body under that control.” (p. 242)

18 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 5

Great quote from Dr. Skinner…

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“It is direct intervention and manipulation of the body which is most often cited today to illustrate the dangers of the control of behavior, but a much more effective control is already within reach through environmental manipulation. It is only the traditional fascination with an inner life which again leads to the neglect of the latter.” (p. 236)

6 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 15

Very important quote that expresses the effects of a person’s natural and social environments  😊

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“Man is born free,” said Rousseau, “and is everywhere in chains,” but no one is less free than a newborn child, nor will he become free as he grows older. His only hope is that he will come under the control of a natural and social environment in which he will make the most of his genetic endowment and in doing so most successfully pursue happiness.” (p. 221)

6 Sep

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 11

Yes, you can effect if someone behaves morally…

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“. . . if we are asked, “Is a person moral because he behaves morally, or does he behave morally because he is moral?” we must answer, “Neither.” He behaves morally and we call him moral because he lives in a particular kind of environment.” (p. 213)

22 Aug

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 3

Do any of your Learners, Family Members, Friends, and/or Colleagues attempt to control the world around them?

If so, you may be “assuming” that this is “inappropriate” behavior. However, read Skinner’s quote below before making this assumption…

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“We often overlook the fact that human behavior is also a form of control. That an organism should act to control the world around it is as characteristic of life as breathing or reproduction.” (p. 208)

14 Aug

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 24

The CLM Curriculum contains the contingencies that develop the Learners’ Competent Learner Repertoires…

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“[Teaching] is a field in which the goal seems to be obviously a matter of changing minds, attitudes, feelings, motives, and so on, and the Establishment is therefore particularly resistant to change. Yet, the point of education can be stated in behavioral terms: a teacher arranges contingencies under which the student acquires behavior which will be useful to him under other contingencies later on.” (pp. 202-203)

25 Jul

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 12

Very important statement…

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“The shift from introspective to environmental evidence does not guarantee that self-knowledge will be accurate . . . [When evidence is sketchy,] we are likely to explain the inexplicable by attributing it to genetic endowment—asserting, “I was born that way,” or, “That’s the kind of person I am.” (p. 188)

17 Jul

About Behaviorism, Chapter 10: The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion, Quote 12

Yes, yes, and Yes!

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“We need to know a great deal more about complex contingencies of reinforcement, and it will always be hard to deal with that particular set to which any one person is exposed during his life, but at least we know how to go about finding out what we need to know.” (p. 182)

5 Jul

About Behaviorism, Chapter 10: The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion, Quote 9

VERY SIGNIFICANT QUOTE…

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“The extraordinary appeal of inner causes and the accompanying neglect of environmental histories and current setting must be due to more than a linguistic practice. I suggest that it has the appeal of the arcane, the occult, the hermetic, the magical—those mysteries which have held so important a position in the history of human thought . . . It is the appeal still enjoyed by astrology, numerology, parapsychology, and psychical research.” (p.178)