“To say that “the child who learns a language has in some sense constructed the grammar for himself” is as misleading as to say that a dog which has learned to catch a ball has in some sense constructed the relevant part of the science of mechanics.” (p. 124)
Vicci Tucci – YES!
“Statistical techniques often inject a destructive delay between the conduct of an experiment and the discovery of the significance of the data—a fatal violation of a fundamental principle of reinforcement. (113)”
Vicci Tucci – Single-Subject Designs are the way to go…
Although it is sometimes said that research on lower animals makes it impossible to discover what is distinctly human, it is only by studying the behavior of lower animals that we can tell what is distinctly human. (p. 101)
Vicci Tucci – Trained my first dog who was 12 years old to sit when I was ONLY 12 years old for my 4-H Project since I did NOT live on a farm with animals like pigs and goats. The vet told me she was too old to learn. That is all it took for me to “go for training her”! The beginning of my interest in learning about Behavior and how one can teach new behaviors. However, I chose to teach Humans!
“The importance of programming is, indeed, often completely overlooked. For example, the statement that a given type of organism or an organism of a given age “cannot solve a given kind of problem” is meaningless until the speaker has specified the programs which have been tried and considered the possibility that better ones may be designed. (p. 80)”
Vicci Tucci – CLMers perform as expected for their learners by arranging and rearranging the contingencies based on the learners’ performance…
“To discriminate is not to respond but to respond differently to two or more stimuli. (p. 76)”
Vicci Tucci – I have learned from Dr. Kent Johnson the value of Discrimination Exercises when teaching any subject that is to be learned…
“A natural datum in a science of behavior is the probability that a given bit of behavior will occur at a given time. An experimental analysis deals with that probability in terms of frequency or rate of responding.” (p. 75)
“An important point is that effective contingencies need to be programmed—that is, they are effective only when a person has passed through a series of intermediate contingencies.” (pp. 39-40)
Vicci Tucci – An example would be, leaning a schedule of reinforcement which passes through a series of intermediate contingencies…
“… when a craftsman spends a week in completing a given object, each of the parts produced during the week is likely to be automatically reinforcing because of its place in the completed object.” (p. 18)
Vicci Tucci – The educational community’s language for Automatic Reinforcement is Intrinsic Reinforcement. Most educators prefer this form of reinforcement instead of Consumable Reinforcement. Therefore, I make sure to teach CLMers about Skinner’s three forms of reinforcement, Automatic, Social, and Educational (e.g., consumables and activities). Skinner considers social as the weakest form and automatic as the most effective form to develop repertoires. As Skinner has noted, an implementer has to condition automatic reinforcement as a potential form of reinforcement.
“Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement which expedite learning . . . Programmed instruction is a technique taken directly from the operant laboratory, and it is designed to maximize the reinforcement associated with successful control of the environment . . . An equally important advance is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement in the classroom which take over the function of “discipline.” (p. 15)
Vicci Tucci – This Skinnerian Finding greatly affected the development of the Competent Learner Model (CLM). It provided me with the content I needed to impact Learning Environments in Public School Settings more than 3 decades ago.
“A culture is not the behavior of the people “living in it”; it is the “it” in which they live—the contingencies of social reinforcement which generate and sustain their behavior.” (p. 13)
Vicci Tucci – I consider a Learning Environment as an “it” given that the Learner’s and Implementers behaviors are affected by the contingencies…
“A language is not the words or sentences “spoken in it”; it is the “it” in which they are spoken—the practices of the verbal community which shape and maintain the behavior of speakers.” (p. 12)
Vicci Tucci – Pay close attention to every word…
“An adequate formulation of the interaction between an organism and its environment must always specify three things: (1) the occasion upon which a response occurs, (2) the response itself, and (3) the reinforcing consequences. The interrelationships among them are the “contingencies of reinforcement.” (p. 7)
Vicci Tucci – It is the interrelationship that matters, A-B-C.
“The class of responses upon which a reinforcer is contingent is called an operant, to suggest the action on the environment followed by reinforcement. We construct an operant by making a reinforcer contingent on a response, but the important fact about the resulting unit is not its topography but its probability of occurrence, observed as rate of emission.” (p. 7)
Vicci Tucci – Yes, yes, yes…
Extremely important quote by Dr. Skinner…
“Evolutionary theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by the human genetic endowment from antecedent design to subsequent selection by contingencies of survival. Operant theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by human action from antecedent intention or plan to subsequent selection by contingencies of reinforcement.” (p. 246)
“Not only does a behavioral analysis not reject any of these “higher mental processes”; it has taken the lead in investigating the contingencies under which they occur. What it rejects is the assumption that comparable activities take place in the mysterious world of the mind.” (p. 246)
“Introspective knowledge of one’s own body—self-knowledge—is defective for two reasons: the verbal community cannot bring self-descriptive behavior under the precise control of private stimuli, and there has been no opportunity for the evolution of a nervous system which would bring some very important parts of the body under that control.” (p. 242)
Great quote from Dr. Skinner…
“It is direct intervention and manipulation of the body which is most often cited today to illustrate the dangers of the control of behavior, but a much more effective control is already within reach through environmental manipulation. It is only the traditional fascination with an inner life which again leads to the neglect of the latter.” (p. 236)
Very important quote that expresses the effects of a person’s natural and social environments 😊
“Man is born free,” said Rousseau, “and is everywhere in chains,” but no one is less free than a newborn child, nor will he become free as he grows older. His only hope is that he will come under the control of a natural and social environment in which he will make the most of his genetic endowment and in doing so most successfully pursue happiness.” (p. 221)
Yes, you can effect if someone behaves morally…
“. . . if we are asked, “Is a person moral because he behaves morally, or does he behave morally because he is moral?” we must answer, “Neither.” He behaves morally and we call him moral because he lives in a particular kind of environment.” (p. 213)